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2018-01-10 15:09

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  Trouble with Teamwork

  Mary Owen examines the role and efficiency of teams

  Recruiters say that candidates who can give examples of work they have done as members of a successful team are in as strong a position as those who can point to significant individual achievement. Indeed, too much of the latter may suggest that the person concerned is not a 'team player' - one of the more serious failings in the book of management.

  The importance of being a team player is a side effect of the increasing interaction across departments and functional divides. Instead of pushing reports, paperwork and decisions around the organisation, 'teams provide a dynamic meeting place where ideas can be shared and expertise more carefully targeted at important business issues,' says Steve Gardner, in his book Key Management Concepts. He adds, 'Globalisation has added a further dimension to teamwork. Multinational teams now study policy decisions in the light of their impact on the local market.'

  But is teamworking being overdone? 'Some managers are on as many as seven or eight different teams', says Dr Cathy Bandy, a psychologist who recently ran a conference on the subject. 'They take up so much time that managers can't get on with core tasks.' Forming teams and having meetings has, she says, become an end in itself, almost regardless of purpose. There is also the danger of an unhealthy desire to keep the team going after the work has been done. 'People feel the need to belong, and team membership can provide a kind of psychological support.'

  The idea behind teamworking is that, when the right group of people is brought together, a 'force' develops which is greater than the sum of their individual talents. This is often true in sport, where good players can reach unexpected heights as members of an international team. However,few business situations have as clear a set of objectives, or as clear criteria of success or failure, as winning a match.

  'In business, everyone needs to be clear about what the challenge is and whether a team is the right way of approaching it', says Steve Gardner. 'Unfortunately, people focus instead on who the members of the team should be and what roles they are to play' Dr Bandy agrees. 'There is always a danger that teams can turn into committees,' she says. 'In a lot of situations, one or two individuals would be much more effective.'

  So what makes a successful team? There are some general qualities that have been identified. Steve Gardnerrecommends that in every team there should be someone who is good at researching ideas and another who is good at shooting down impractical ones. There should be those who can resolve the tensions that naturally occur in a team and others who are focused on getting the job done. Also, providing a clear and achievable target at the outset is the best way of ensuring that the team will move on to greater things.

  13 What point does the writer make about teamworking at the beginning of the article?

  A It is the most successful form of management.

  B It has changed the recruitment procedure in companies.

  C Well-run teams still allow individuals to demonstrate their talents.

  D Being a team player is now considered an essential management skill.

  14 According to the article, teamwork developed within companies as a response to

  A modern office design.

  B changing work practices.

  C a reduction in administrative tasks.

  D the expansion of international business.

  15 In the third paragraph, Dr Bandy suggests that

  A many employees do not enjoy working in teams.

  B some managers are not very effective team leaders.

  C some teams are created unnecessarily.

  D few teams are well organised.

  16 According to the writer, teamwork is more effective in the field of sport because the players

  A know what they want to achieve.

  B are more competitive by nature.

  C have more individual talent.

  D can be driven by national pride.

  17 Steve Gardner and Dr Bandy agree that when a business team is created people do not pay enough attention to

  A the structure of the team.

  B alternatives to the team.

  C selecting the team members.

  D directing the team's activities.

  18 What is Steve Gardner's advice on operating a successful team?

  A Maintain a flexible approach to membership.

  B Allow personalities to develop within the team.

  C Select people who fit naturally into certain roles.

  D Make every effort to avoid conflict between members.

  《Trouble with Teamwork》,團隊合作的麻煩。文章講了團隊的重要性和很多團隊存在的問題,以及怎么樣才能打造一個成功有效的團隊。

  第十三題,問文章開頭作者針對團隊合作做了什么論點。第一段是強調團隊合作的重要性,太多的個人成果會顯得這個人不是個合格的團隊成員。選答案要理解第一句話的含義:Recruiters say that candidates who can give examples of work they have done as members of a successful team are in as strong a position as those who can point to significant individual achievement.招聘者說能夠給出自己作為一個成功團隊成員的例子的候選人同那些指出重要的個人成果的人具有同樣重要的地位。言下之意,擁有團隊成員的經歷也很重要。所以選D,作為一個團隊成員如今被視為必要的管理技巧。A、B、C都沒有提到。

  第十四題,問公司內部的團隊合作是作為對什么的回應。也就是問團隊合作的目的是什么,答案是第二段的這么一句:'teams provide a dynamic meeting place where ideas can be shared and expertise more carefully targeted at important business issues 團隊提供了一個動態的會議場所,使得思想可以分享,技能可以更加仔細的對準重要的商業問題。這句里的dynamic meeting place可以對應于B段的changing work practice。

  第十五題,問在第三段Dr Bandy暗示什么。答案是她的一句原話:Forming teams and having meetings has, she says, become an end in itself, almost regardless of purpose.形成團隊然后開會成了它本身的終點,幾乎不管目的是什么。也就是說很多團隊的建立是沒有意義的,多余的。選C,一些團隊被不必要的創建了。

  第十六題,問作者認為團隊合作在體育領域里更有效的原因是什么。第四段講當一群正確的人被組合到一起時會產生一種高于這些人個人能力的力量,在體育比賽里就是如此。這一題的答案是第四段的最后一句:few business situations have as clear a set of objectives, or as clear criteria of success or failure, as winning a match.。很少有企業能像贏得一場比賽一樣有一系列清晰的目標,或者是對成功或失敗有清晰的評判準則。也就是A選項所說的:知道他們想要實現什么。what they want to achieve可以對應于a set of objectives。

  第十七題,問這兩個人同意當一個商業團隊被創立時人們沒有把注意力放在什么上面。這一題要理解第五段的意思。第一句說In business, everyone needs to be clear about what the challenge is and whether a team is the right way of approaching it。在企業,每個人都必須很清楚挑戰是什么以及團隊是否是實現它的最好的辦法??紤]團隊是不是最好的辦法,也就是說要考慮其他可能的途徑,即B選項所說的團隊的替代品(alternatives to the team),后面有句focus instead….人們卻把注意力放在了其他的地方。從這些可以看出答案是B。

  第十八題,問關于運作一個成功團隊Steve Gardner的建議是什么。這題的答案是對最后一段的概括。答案是最后一段第三句recommend后面的一長串there…who,要有不同的人勝任不同的角色。歸納起來,就是各司其職選C:選擇能夠自然融洽的勝任某個角色的人。其他幾個選項都沒提到。

  第二段有個地方值得解釋下。Globalisation has added a further dimension to teamwork。

  這里的dimension用法比較特別,表示方面,特征,并且是很地道常見的說法

  牛津詞典的解釋:an aspect or feature of a situation, problem, or thing。

  麥克米蘭的解釋:a part of a situation, especially when it influences the way you think about the situation。

  e.g: Doing volunteer work has added a whole new dimension to my life.

  常見搭配:an extra/added/additional/further dimension

(編輯:何瑩瑩)

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